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Pure Appl. Chem., 2002, Vol. 74, No. 12, pp. 2311-2316

Chemical and biological safety: Biosensors and nanotechnological methods for the detection and monitoring of chemical and biological agents

S. Varfolomeyev1*, I. Kurockhin2,1, A. Eremenko2,1 and E. Efremenko1

1 The Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry, Chemical; Enzymology Department, Lenin ’s Hills, 1/11, Moscow, 119992 Russia
2 Russian Center of Molecular Diagnostics and Therapy, Simferopolsky b-r, 8, Moscow 1131439, Russia

Abstract: The elaboration of highly sensitive and express methods for quantitative and qualitative detection and monitoring of chemical warfare agents (CWA), organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, compounds with delayed neurotoxicity, and pathogenic microorganisms and viruses is discussed. The application of potentiometric and amperometric biosensors, automatic biosensors discriminating the neurotoxins of different classes, is performed. The information about biosensors detecting the compounds with delayed neurotoxicity through the evaluation of “neurotoxic esterase”activity in the blood is presented. The use of immunochip technology for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and viruses is demonstrated. The enzymatic methods of destruction of organophosphorus neurotoxins are considered as the base of new defense technology.