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Pure Appl. Chem., 2002, Vol. 74, No. 12, pp. 2299-2309

Integrated chemical systems on microchips for analysis and assay. Potential future, mobile high-performance detection system for chemical weapons

Yoshikuni Kikutani1, M. Tokeshi1, K. Sato2 and Takehiko Kitamori2,1*

1 Integrated Chemistry Project, Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, KSP Bldg, East 307, 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 213-0012, Japan
2 Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, The University; of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan

Abstract: By analogy to unit operations (e.g., mixers, reactors, etc.) used in conventional chemical engineering, the concept of microunit operations permits the integration of complicated chemical systems onto a small microchip. A protocol for fabrication of such microchips is described, and its use is illustrated in several examples. In addition, the thermal lens microscope, which determines nonfluorescent species at the single-molecule level, is indispensable as an ultrasensitive detector for general use. Applications of microchip technology are given for chemical analysis, immunoassay, and full bioassay. Microchip analysis can provide very large enhancements in sensitivity and substantial reductions in measurement time as compared with conventional analytical methods.