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Articles by S. Slanina



  • Aerosols have a strong impact on the radiative balance of the earth, in a direct way by reflecting solar light as well as in an indirect way by cloud formation leading to clouds with higher albedo, which reflect sunlight better. The total direct effect, backscatter of sunlight, including backscatter from nitrates and organic compounds, is estimated to be approximately 2 to 3 W m−2 for Western Europe, while the indirect effect is approximately 0 to −6 W m−2. Soot absorbs incoming solar radiation and heats the atmosphere. This process contributes 0.1 to 0.2 W m−2 on a global scale.