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Pure Appl. Chem., 2013, Vol. 85, No. 11, pp. 2059-2076

Published online 2013-07-10

Solubility phenomena in science and education: Experiments, thermodynamic analyses, and theoretical aspects

Heinz Gamsjäger

Lehrstuhl für Physikalische Chemie, Montanuniversität Leoben, A-8700 Leoben, Austria

Abstract: Solubility equilibria between solid salts, salt hydrates, and water play an important role in fundamental and applied branches of chemistry. The continuous interest in this field has been reflected by the 15th International Symposium on Solubility Phenomena as well as by the ongoing IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series (SDS), which by now comprises close to 100 volumes. Three typical examples concerning solubility phenomena of ionic solids in aqueous solutions are discussed: (1) sparingly soluble, simple molybdates; (2) sparingly soluble ionic solids with basic anions; and (3) hydrolysis of inert hexa-aqua-M(III) ions, where M is Ir, Rh, or Cr. In the first two cases, essential experimental details are discussed, an outline of thermodynamic analyses is given, and theoretical aspects are emphasized. In the third case, an educational suggestion is made.