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Pure Appl. Chem., 2011, Vol. 83, No. 1, pp. 57-66

Published online 2010-11-19

Toward carbon dioxide capture using nanoporous materials*

Deanna M. D'Alessandro1* and Thomas McDonald2

1 School of Chemistry, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
2 Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720‑1460, USA

Abstract: The development of more efficient processes for CO2 capture from the flue streams of power plants is considered a key to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions implicated in global warming. Indeed, several U.S. and international climate change initiatives have identified the urgent need for improved materials and methods for CO2 capture. Conventional CO2 capture processes employed in power plants world-wide are typically postcombustion “wet scrubbing” methods involving the absorption of CO2 by amine-containing solvents such as methanolamine (MEA). These present several disadvantages, including the considerable heat required in regeneration of the solvent and the necessary use of inhibitors for corrosion control, which lead to reduced efficiencies and increased costs for electricity production. This perspective article seeks to highlight the most recent advances in new materials for CO2 capture from power plant flue streams, with particular emphasis on the rapidly expanding field of metal–organic frameworks. Ultimately, the development of new classes of efficient, cost-effective, and industrially viable capture materials for application in carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems offers an immense opportunity to reduce atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases on a national and international scale.
*Pure Appl. Chem. 83, 1–252 (2011). A collection of invited, peer-reviewed articles by former winners of the IUPAC Prize for Young Chemists, in celebration of the International Year of Chemistry 2011.