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Pure Appl. Chem., 2010, Vol. 82, No. 2, pp. 383-391

Published online 2010-01-25

An ignored risk factor in toxicology: The total imprecision of exposure assessment

Philippe Grandjean1,2* and Esben Budtz-Jørgensen3

1 Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA
2 Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
3 Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

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  • Bellinger David C.: Mercury and Pregnancy. Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology 2014, 100, 1. <>
  • Fonseca Márlon de Freitas, De Souza Hacon Sandra, Grandjean Philippe, Choi Anna Lai, Bastos Wanderley Rodrigues: Iron status as a covariate in methylmercury-associated neurotoxicity risk. Chemosphere 2014, 100, 89. <>
  • Grandjean Philippe, Landrigan Philip J: Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity. The Lancet Neurology 2014, 13, 330. <>
  • Marques Rejane C., Bernardi José V. E., Dórea José G., Leão Renata S., Malm Olaf: Mercury Transfer During Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Hair Mercury Concentrations as Biomarker. Biol Trace Elem Res 2013, 154, 326. <>
  • Guo Bao-Qiang, Cai Shi-Zhong, Guo Jun-Liang, Xu Jian, Wu Wei, Li Hui, Zhou Xin, Kim Dae-Seon, Yan Chong-Huai, Lü Hong-Dao: Levels of prenatal mercury exposure and their relationships to neonatal anthropometry in Wujiang City, China. Environmental Pollution 2013, 182, 184. <>
  • Xu Ming-Shu, Chen Shuo, Wang Wen-Quan, Liu Si-Qin: Employing bifunctional enzymes for enhanced extraction of bioactives from plants: flavonoids as an example. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2013, 130719210609000. <>
  • Grandjean Philippe, Weihe Pal, Nielsen Flemming, Heinzow Birger, Debes Frodi, Budtz-Jørgensen Esben: Neurobehavioral deficits at age 7years associated with prenatal exposure to toxicants from maternal seafood diet. Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2012, 34, 466. <>
  • Hinners Thomas, Tsuchiya Ami, Stern Alan H, Burbacher Thomas M, Faustman Elaine M, Mariën Koenraad: Chronologically matched toenail-Hg to hair-Hg ratio: temporal analysis within the Japanese community (U.S.). Environ Health 2012, 11, 81. <>
  • Karagas Margaret R., Choi Anna L., Oken Emily, Horvat Milena, Schoeny Rita, Kamai Elizabeth, Cowell Whitney, Grandjean Philippe, Korrick Susan: Evidence on the Human Health Effects of Low-Level Methylmercury Exposure. Environ Health Perspect 2012, 120, 799. <>
  • Grandjean Philippe, Herz Katherine T.: Methylmercury and Brain Development: Imprecision and Underestimation of Developmental Neurotoxicity in Humans. Mt Sinai J Med 2011, 78, 107. <>
  • Mahaffey Kathryn R, Sunderland Elsie M, Chan Hing Man, Choi Anna L, Grandjean Philippe, Mariën Koenraad, Oken Emily, Sakamoto Mineshi, Schoeny Rita, Weihe Pál: Balancing the benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the risks of methylmercury exposure from fish consumption : Nutrition Reviews©, Vol. ••, No. ••. Nut Rev 2011, 69, 493. <>