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Pure Appl. Chem., 2009, Vol. 81, No. 9, pp. 1591-1602

Published online 2009-08-19

Solubility and critical phenomena in reactive liquid–liquid systems

Alexander Toikka* and Maria Toikka

Department of Chemical Thermodynamics and Kinetics, Faculty of Chemistry, Saint-Petersburg State University, Universitetskiy prospect 26, Petrodvoretz, Saint-Petersburg 198504, Russia

Abstract: The goal of this work is to consider solubility phenomena in reactive fluid mixtures with liquid-phase splitting. One of the main tasks is to analyze peculiarities of liquid–liquid (LL) systems with equilibrium and nonequilibrium chemical reaction. The special aim is to consider the critical states in these systems. The reactive liquid–liquid equilibrium (LLE) is treated on the base of phase rule. The topology of diagrams of reactive LLE is discussed for some types of binary and ternary systems. Examples are presented of a possible transformation of phase diagrams caused by the shifting of chemical equilibrium and by changes in the shape of the binodal. The transformations resulting in the reactive critical phase formation are considered. Quaternary mixtures are also discussed with the use of experimental data on the solubility in the system with n-propyl acetate synthesis reaction. The mutual crossing of the chemical equilibrium surface and binodal in the composition tetrahedron leads to the origin of the area of simultaneous chemical and LLE with two critical points (reactive critical phases). The shape of the curve of simultaneous chemical and phase equilibrium is also presented in the square of transformed composition variables.