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Pure Appl. Chem., 2008, Vol. 80, No. 12, pp. 2699-2713

Simultaneous tracing of multiple precursors each labeled with a different homo-elemental isotope by speciation analysis: Distribution and metabolism of four parenteral selenium sources

Kazuo T. Suzuki, Chiaki Doi and Noriyuki Suzuki

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8675, Japan

Abstract: The availability, distribution, and metabolism of four typical selenium sources [inorganic selenite and selenate, and organic selenomethionine (SeMet) and methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys)] were compared by administering them simultaneously through a parenteral route. The four selenium sources were each labeled with a different enriched selenium isotope (82Se, 78Se, 77Se, and 76Se, respectively), and administered intravenously at the dose of 25 μg Se/kg body weight each to rats that had been depleted of natural abundance selenium with a single isotope, 80Se, by feeding 80Se-selenite in drinking water and a selenium-deficient diet. At 1 h post-injection, the amounts of the four tracers recovered from major organs and blood comprised around 70, 55, and 50 % of the doses for selenite, MeSeCys and SeMet, and selenate, respectively, being most abundant in the liver. The intact precursors, except for selenite, were recovered from all organs. 77Se and 76Se of SeMet and MeSeCys origin, respectively, were much more efficiently recovered from the pancreas than selenite and selenate, in forms mostly bound to proteins together with intact forms, suggesting that SeMet and MeSeCys are preferentially distributed directly to the pancreas. The incorporations of selenium into selenoprotein P (Sel P) and selenosugars were most efficient from selenite and less efficient from SeMet, suggesting that selenite was most efficiently utilized for the syntheses of selenoproteins and selenosugars. Although selenate was partly excreted into the urine in its intact form, it was retained longer in the plasma in its intact form than the other selenium sources. The advantage of simultaneous administration of multiple precursors each labeled with a different enriched isotope to depleted hosts followed by simultaneous tracing of the labeled isotopes over the conventional method with a single tracer is emphasized together with cautions that may occur with the new multiple tracer method.