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Pure Appl. Chem., 2008, Vol. 80, No. 11, pp. 2489-2498

Electrochromics for energy efficiency and indoor comfort

Claes G. Granqvist

Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden

Abstract: Electrochromic (EC) oxide films with nanocrystalline and nanoporous structure constitute the basis of a number of devices for modulating the throughput of radiant energy. One example is in architectural windows capable of providing energy efficiency and indoor comfort simultaneously. This paper introduces EC technology with particular attention to applications to the built environment. The nanostructural features of the EC films are emphasized, and it is pointed out that reactive magnetron sputtering can be used for large area manufacturing. Electrochromics is discussed from the viewpoints of materials, device technology, and applications.