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Pure Appl. Chem., 2003, Vol. 75, No. 11-12, pp. 2461-2466

Identifying the causative agents: The use of combined chemical and biological strategies in monitoring programs

E. J. Routledge

Department of Biological Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH,UK

Abstract: The toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) approach that identified unconjugated natural and synthetic steroid estrogens to be the major estrogenic component in domestic sewage treatment work effluent is described. Given the increasing popularity of TIE-based approaches in ecotoxicology research, a number of important considerations, limitations, and possible future directions of TIE studies are also discussed.