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Pure Appl. Chem., 2003, Vol. 75, No. 11-12, pp. 2287-2303

Review of the effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in birds

J. P. Giesy, L. A. Feyk, P. D. Jones, Kurunthachalam Kannan and T. Sanderson

Michigan State University, Department of Zoology, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Institute for Environmental Toxicology, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA

Abstract: There have been several case studies of the impact of chemical contaminants on birds at the level of individuals or populations. While many of the chemicals involved in these incidents have been classified as endocrine-disrupting chemicals or endocrine active substances (EASs) the mechanisms by which these chemicals affect birds are not clearly or fully understood.