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Pure Appl. Chem., 2002, Vol. 74, No. 8, pp. 1369-1382

Recent advances in industrial carotenoid synthesis

Hansgeorg Ernst

Fine Chemicals Research, GVF/B ­ B 9, BASF AG D-67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany

Symmetrical C40-carotenoids are efficiently produced by double Wittig olefination of the corrresponding C15-phosphonium salts with C10-dialdehyde. Industrial syntheses of lycopene-, astaxanthin-, and (3R,3'R)-zeaxanthin-C15-phosphonium salts are discussed. An efficient route to a monoprotected C10-dialdehyde for the synthesis of unsymmetrical
C40-carotenoids is presented. Primary polyene allyl alcohols can be converted to the corresponding aldehydes by "TEMPO" oxidation. A high-yield synthesis of meso-zeaxanthin as an example for syntheses of unsymmetrical carotenoids is presented.

Errata to this article were published in:
Pure Appl. Chem., 2002, Vol. 74, No. 11, pp. 2213-2226