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Pure Appl. Chem., 2001, Vol. 73, No. 10, pp. 1589-1598

Exploring new opportunities with sum-frequency nonlinear optical spectroscopy

Y. R. Shen

Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

Abstract: Over the last decade, infrared-visible sum-frequency generation has been developed into a powerful vibrational spectroscopic technique, especially for surface studies. We give here a brief review of the technique and a few recent applications of the technique to liquid and polymer surfaces. We also describe how the technique has found unique applications in our studies of surface melting of ice, ferroelectric ice films, and molecular chirality in chiral liquids. Doubly resonant sum-frequency generation as surface-specific two-dimensional spectroscopy is discussed.