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Pure Appl. Chem., 2012, Vol. 84, No. 2, pp. 181-190

Published online 2012-01-11

Concentrations of toxic and essential elements in Lebanese bread

Rola Bou Khouzam1,2, Pawel Pohl3,2, Baydaa Al Ayoubi4, Farouk Jaber1,5 and Ryszard Lobinski6,2*

1 Analytical Laboratory for Organic Compounds, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, CNRS-L. Airport Main Road, 11-8281, Beirut, Lebanon
2 Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, CNRS/UPPA,UMR 5254, Hélioparc, 2, Av. Pr. Angot, F-64053 Pau, France
3 Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, 50-370, Poland
4 Statistics and Informatics Department, Faculty of Sciences-I, Lebanese University, Hadath, Beirut, Lebanon
5 Laboratory of Analysis of Organic Compounds (509), Faculty of Sciences I, Lebanese University, Hadath, Beirut, Lebanon
6 Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, Warsaw, 00-664, Poland

Abstract: Concentrations of 20 minor, trace, and ultratrace elements relevant to human health (Ag, Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, V, and Zn) were determined in three varieties of Lebanese bread (white and brown double loaf bread, Saj bread) sampled at five geographical regions (Grand Beirut, South of Lebanon, North of Lebanon, Mount of Lebanon, and Beka’a) during the wet and dry seasons. The analyses were carried out by double-focusing sector-field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (DF-SF-ICP-MS). The data were discussed in terms of nutritional elements supplied by type of bread, the risk of contamination by toxic elements (As, Cd, Pb) owing to the manufacturing process, and variations related to geographic distribution and seasonal sampling.