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Pure Appl. Chem., 2011, Vol. 83, No. 10, pp. 1873-1935

Published online 2011-06-15

Metrological traceability of measurement results in chemistry: Concepts and implementation (IUPAC Technical Report)

Paul De Bièvre1*, René Dybkær2, Aleš Fajgelj3 and D. Brynn Hibbert4

1 Duineneind 9, B-2460, Kasterlee, Belgium
2 Department of Standardization in Laboratory Medicine, Region H Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, DK‑2000, Frederiksberg, Denmark
3 Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, A‑1400 Vienna, Austria
4 School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia

Abstract: This IUPAC study aims at formulating recommendations concerning the metrological traceability of a measurement result in chemistry. It is intended to provide the chemical measurement community with a consistent view of the creation, meaning, and role of metrological traceability and its underpinning concepts. No distinction is made between measurement results obtained in “high metrology” and in the “field”. A description is given of the calibration hierarchies needed in different circumstances to arrive at metrological traceability along a metrological traceability chain. Flow charts of generic calibration hierarchies are presented as well as a variety of examples. The establishment, assessment, and reporting of metrological traceability are discussed, including the provision of metrological references by a metrological institutional framework and the role of interlaboratory comparisons.