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Pure Appl. Chem., 2009, Vol. 81, No. 6, pp. 1009-1018

Published online 2009-05-05

Chemistry and biology of Okinawan marine natural products

Jun'ichi Kobayashi

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, 060-0812, Japan

Abstract: Marine macro- and micro-organisms collected in Okinawa are good sources of compounds with intriguing structures and interesting biological activities. Synthetic hybrid molecules of caffeine and eudistomin D from tunicates Eudistoma sp. were found to show better potency as adenosine receptor ligands than caffeine, and one of them exhibits potent activity for adenosine receptors tested, especially for A3 subtype. Potent cytotoxic polyene macrolides from a tunicate Cystodytes sp. were found to be potent osteoclast inhibitors and to inhibit vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) of both mammalian and yeast cells. Amphidinolactones A and B are new macrolides from a dinoflagellate Amphidinium sp., and a potent cytotoxic macrolide from another strain was found to target actin cytoskeleton. Theonezolide A, a long-chain polyketide from a sponge Theonella sp., induces a drastic shape change in platelets by reorganization of microtubules. The stereochemistry of many chiral centers in theonezolide A was elucidated by spectral data and chemical means. Metachromins L-Q are new sesquiterpenoid quinones with an amino acid residue, while nakijiquinones E and F were the first dimeric sesquiterpenoid quinones possessing a 3-aminobenzoate moiety. Halichonadin E is the first hetero-dimeric sesquiterpenoid with eudesmane and aromadendrane skeletons linked through a urea fragment isolated from a sponge Halichondria sp. Pyrinadine A and nakinadine A are novel bis-pyridine alkaloids from sponges, while nagelamides are new bromopyrrole alkaloids from a sponge Agelas sp. Here, the structures and bioactivities of these interesting marine natural products will be described.