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Pure Appl. Chem., 2007, Vol. 79, No. 12, pp. 2297-2304

Essential fatty acid components and antioxidant activities of eight Cephalaria species from southwestern Anatolia*

Süheyla Kırmızıgül1, Nazlı Böke1, Hüseyin Sümbül2, R. Süleyman Göktürk2 and Nazlı Arda3

1 Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry, Ege University, 35100, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey
2 Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Biology, Akdeniz University, 07058, Antalya, Turkey
3 Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, İstanbul University, 34118, Vezneciler, İstanbul, Turkey

Abstract: The hexane extracts of eight Cephalaria (Dipsacaceae) species, which were collected from southwestern Anatolia, were obtained by Soxhlet apparatus. The fatty acids were derived to methyl esters and determined by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) systems. The dominant fatty acid components and maximum percentages were detected as myristic [in C. joppica (17.48 %)], palmitic [in C. cilicica, C. elmaliensis, C. isaurica, C. scoparia (19.51 %), and C. gazipashaensis], linoleic [in C. joppica (33.02 %), C. elmaliensis, C. dipsacoides, and C. gazipashaensis], α-linolenic (ALA) [in C. cilicica, C. elmaliensis, C. isaurica, C. scoparia, C. lycica, and C. gazipashaensis (47.95 %)] and oleic [in C. isaurica and C. dipsacoides (40.66 %)] acids. The antioxidant activity of all hexane extracts was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric thiocyanate (FTC), and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. The results indicate that hexane extracts of Cephalaria species possess considerable antioxidant activity. The highest radical scavenging activity was detected in C. isaurica (IC50 = 741 μg/mL). The most effective species on lipid peroxidation are C. lycica and C. gazipashaensis in FTC and TBA assays, respectively. This study reveals that Cephalaria species are attractive sources of fatty acid components, especially the essential ones, as well as of effective natural antioxidants.
*Invited contribution to a collection of papers for the IUPAC project 2005-042-1-300 "Chemistry for Biology". Other contributions to the project are published in this issue, pp. 2179-2366.