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Pure Appl. Chem., 2005, Vol. 77, No. 9, pp. 1607-1616

Modeling the active site structures of vanadate-dependent peroxidases and vanadate-inhibited phosphatases

Dieter Rehder, Martin Ebel, Cornelia Wikete, Gabriella Santoni and Jessica Gätjens

Institut für Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Universität Hamburg, D20146 Hamburg, Germany

Abstract: The active center of vanadate-dependent peroxidases (VPOs) is represented by vanadate covalently attached to a histidine, with vanadium in a trigonal-bipyramidal environment. Protein phosphatases and kinases are inhibited by the phosphate analog vanadate [VVO2(OH)2- and VIVO(OH)3-], which can be related to the coordination of vanadium to histidine or a hydroxide function as provided by tyrosinate or serinate. The vanadium centers in these proteins have been modeled by employing chiral ONO ligands. The penta-coordinated chiral complexes [VO(OMe)(L1)] (H2L1 = substituted diethanolamine) are distorted trigonal-bipyramidal with the methoxy group and the amine-N in the axial positions. These structural models of VPO also mimic the sulfide-oxidation activity of the peroxidases. The complexes [VO(H2O)L3] (H2L3 = Schiff-base ligands based on salicylaldehyde derivatives (o-vanillin; 2-hydroxy-naphthylaldehyde) and L- or D,L-tyrosine, or D,L-serine are tetragonal-pyramidal; the OH functions of the amino acid moieties are not directly coordinated to vanadium; they are involved, however, in complex hydrogen-bonding networks. The oxo/peroxo anion [VO(O2)(L2)2]3- (H2L2 = 2,5-dipicolinic acid) contains a slightly asymmetrically bonded O22-, featuring structural characteristics of the peroxo/hydroperoxo intermediates of the peroxidases. XD structure results are reported for the following complexes: R,S- and R,R-[VO(OMe)(L1)], K3[VO(O2)(L2)2].4.5H2O, the Tyr derivatives L-[VO(H2O)L3].MeOH and D,L-[VO(H2O)L3].H2O, and the Ser derivative D,L-[VO(H2O)L3].2H2O.