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Pure Appl. Chem., 2003, Vol. 75, No. 10, pp. 1403-1415

Nitropyridines: Synthesis and reactions

J. M. Bakke

Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway

Abstract: Reaction of pyridine and substituted pyridines with N2O5 in an organic solvent gives the N-nitropyridinium ion. When this is reacted with SO2/HSO3 in water, 3-nitropyridine is obtained (77 % yield). With substituted pyridines, the method gives good yields for 4-substituted and moderate yields for 3-substituted pyridines. The reaction mechanism is not an electrophilic aromatic substitution, but one in which the nitro group migrates from the 1-position to the 3-position by a [1,5 ] sigmatropic shift. From 4-aminopyridine, imi- dazo [4,5-c ] pyridines have been synthesized. From 3-nitropyridine, 5-nitropyridine-2-sulfonic acid is formed in a two-step reaction. From this, a series of 2-substituted-5-nitro-pyridines has been synthesized. 3-Nitropyridine and 4-substituted-3-nitropyridines have been substituted with ammonia and amines by the vicarious substitution method and by the oxidative substitution method in the position para to the nitro group. High regioselectivities and yields have been obtained in both cases to afford a series of 4-substituted-2-alkylamino-5-nitropyridines.