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Pure Appl. Chem., 2002, Vol. 74, No. 9, pp. 1773-1783

Functional nanoparticle architectures for sensoric, optoelectronic, and bioelectronic applications

Itamar Willner and Bilha Willner

Institute of Chemistry, Farkas Center for Light-Induced Processes, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel

Abstract: Tailored sensoric, electronic, photoelectrochemical, and bioelectrocatalytic functions can be designed by organized molecular or biomolecular nanoparticle hybrid configurations on surfaces. Layered receptor-cross-linked Au nanoparticle assemblies on electrodes act as specific sensors of tunable sensitivities. Layered DNA-cross-linked CdS nanoparticles on electrode supports reveal organized assemblies of controlled electronic and photoelectrochemical properties. Au nanoparticle-FAD semisynthetic cofactor units are reconstituted into apo-glucose oxidase (GOx) and assembled onto electrodes. The resulting enzymes reveal effective electrical contacting with the electrodes, and exhibit bioelectrocatalytic functions toward the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid. Magneto-switchable electrocatalysis and bioelectrocatalysis are accomplished by the surface modification of magnetic particles with redox-relay units. By the attraction of the modified magnetic particles to the electrode support, or their retraction from the electrode, by means of an external magnet, the electrochemical functions of the magnetic particle-tethered relays can be switched between "ON" and "OFF" states, respectively. The magneto-switchable redox functionalities of the modified particles activate electrocatalytic transformations, such as a biocatalytic chemoluminescence cascade that leads to magneto-switchable light emission or the activation of bioelectrocatalytic processes.