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Pure Appl. Chem., 2001, Vol. 73, No. 1, pp. 9-15

In situ speciation measurements. Using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) to determine inorganically and organically complexed metals

Hao Zhang and William Davison

Department of Environmental Sciences, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, UK

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  • Black Amanda, McLaren Ronald George, Speir Thomas Wilson, Clucas Lynne, Condron Leo Murtagh: Gradient differences in soil metal solubility and uptake by shoots and roots of wheat (T. aestivum). Biol Fertil Soils 2013. <>
  • Pouran Hamid M., Llabjani Valon, Martin Francis L., Zhang Hao: Evaluation of ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy with Multivariate Analysis to Study the Binding Mechanisms of ZnO Nanoparticles or Zn2+ to Chelex-100 or Metsorb. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2013, 47, 11115. <>
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  • Levy Jacqueline L., Zhang Hao, Davison William, Puy Jaume, Galceran Josep: Assessment of trace metal binding kinetics in the resin phase of diffusive gradients in thin films. Aldrichim Acta 2012, 717, 143. <>
  • Turner Geraldine S.C., Mills Graham A., Teasdale Peter R., Burnett Jonathan L., Amos Sean, Fones Gary R.: Evaluation of DGT techniques for measuring inorganic uranium species in natural waters: Interferences, deployment time and speciation. Analytica Chimica Acta 2012, 739, 37. <>
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  • Tonello Paulo Sergio, Goveia Danielle, Rosa André Henrique, Fraceto Leonardo Fernandes, Menegário Amauri Antonio: Determination of labile inorganic and organic species of Al and Cu in river waters using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique. Anal Bioanal Chem 2011, 399, 2563. <>
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  • McLaren Ronald G., Reichman Suzanne M., Speir Thomas W., Condron Leo M., Black Amanda: Evaluation of soil metal bioavailability estimates using two plant species (L. perenne and T. aestivum) grown in a range of agricultural soils treated with biosolids and metal salts. Environ Poll 2011, 159, 1523. <>
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  • Conesa Héctor Miguel, Schulin Rainer, Nowack Bernd: Suitability of using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) to study metal bioavailability in mine tailings: possibilities and constraints. Env Sci Poll Res Int 2010, 17, 657. <>
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  • Dytrtová Jana Jaklová, Šestáková Ivana, Jakl Michal, Száková Jiřina, Miholová Daniela, Tlustoš Pavel: The use of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry and diffusive gradient in thin films for heavy metals speciation in soil solution. cent eur j chem 2008, 6, 71. <>
  • Kovaříková Vladěna, Dočekalová Hana, Dočekal Bohumil, Podborská Martina: Use of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) with various diffusive gels for characterization of sewage sludge-contaminated soils. Anal Bioanal Chem 2007, 389, 2303. <>
  • Balistrieri Laurie S., Seal Robert R., Piatak Nadine M., Paul Barbara: Assessing the concentration, speciation, and toxicity of dissolved metals during mixing of acid-mine drainage and ambient river water downstream of the Elizabeth Copper Mine, Vermont, USA. Appl Geoch 2007, 22, 930. <>
  • Lafabrie C., Pergent G., Kantin R., Pergent-Martini C., Gonzalez J.-L.: Trace metals assessment in water, sediment, mussel and seagrass species – Validation of the use of Posidonia oceanica as a metal biomonitor. Chemosphere 2007, 68, 2033. <>
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  • Wegener Jan-Willem M., Berg Gerard A., Stroomberg Gerard J., Velzen Martin J. M.: The role of sediment-feeding oligochaeteTubifex on the availability of trace metals in sediment pore waters as determined by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). J Soils Sediments 2002, 2, 71. <>