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Pure Appl. Chem., 2000, Vol. 72, No. 11, pp. 2111-2126

Development and application of very high temperature mass spectrometry. Vapor pressure determinations over liquid refractories

J. W. Hastie*, D. W. Bonnell and P. K. Schenck

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8522, USA

Abstract: Existing thermodynamic and vaporization data for liquid refractories are based either on estimates or on data extrapolated from studies on the solids obtained at much lower temperatures. Previously, we have shown that pulsed laser heating, coupled with time-dependent mass spectrometry of the free-expansion vapor plume, can be used for semi-quantitative measurements of vaporization thermochemistry. The present work extends this approach with the development of (a) more direct, and more accurate, methods for determining the system temperature and pressure; (b) improved experimental and theoretical determinations of key parameters such as ionization cross sections; and (c) improved characterization of the gas dynamic expansion and thermal equilibration processes. Example material systems considered include C, SiC, Al2O3, ZrO2—7%Y2O3, and Y2O3 at temperatures and total pressures typically in the range of 3000 to 5000 K and 0.01 to 10 bar, respectively (1 bar = 105 Nm-2).