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Pure Appl. Chem., 1996, Vol. 68, No. 9, pp. 1737-1748

Environmental and Health Issues

J. Miyamoto

President, IUPAC Division of Chemistry and the Environment

Abstract: The environmental behavior of a chemical is governed by its intrinsic physicochemical properties, including their metabolic activities, as well as by characteristic features of the environmental compartments. This inextricable network of interactions contribute to degradation and mineralization of organic compounds. Under the circumstances that the chemical is lipophilic and/or resistant against chemical and biological degradation, it tends to be transported to other environmental compartments and/or subject to bioaccumulation. The adverse effects of chemicals on humans and organisms in the environment are assessed by a variety of toxicological studies to establish ADI (acceptable daily intake in man) or PNEC (predicted no observed effect level in organisms), in comparison with the calculated exposure levels based on the environmental behavior of chemicals.