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Pure Appl. Chem., 1993, Vol. 65, No. 12, pp. 2593-2601

Solute/solvent interactions and their empirical determination by means of solvatochromic dyes

C. Reichardt, Siamak Asharin-Fard, Andreas Blum, Michael Eschner, A.-M. Mehranpour, P. Milart, T. Neim, G. Schafer and M. Wilk

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  • Etienne Thibaud, Michaux Catherine, Monari Antonio, Assfeld Xavier, Perpète Eric A.: Theoretical computation of Betain B30 solvatochromism using a Polarizable Continuum Model. Dyes and Pigments 2014, 100, 24. <>
  • Spange Stefan, Lungwitz Ralf, Schade Alexander: Correlation of molecular structure and polarity of ionic liquids. Journal of Molecular Liquids 2013. <>
  • Lo Wei-Jen, Chen Yi-Hui, Sung Kuangsen: Twisting-Based Spectroscopic Measure of Solvent Polarity: The PT Scale. J. Org. Chem. 2013, 78, 5925. <>
  • Shakerizadeh-Shirazi Fatemeh, Hemmateenejad Bahram, Mehranpour Abdol Mohammad: Determination of the empirical solvent polarity parameter ET(30) by multivariate image analysis. Anal. Methods 2013, 5, 891. <>
  • Synthesis and Characterization of Phosphorous Containing NLO Polymers. J. Environ. Nanotechnol. 2013, 2, 01. <>
  • Kumar Keshav, Mishra Ashok Kumar: Quantification of ethanol in petrol–ethanol blends: Use of Reichardt's ET(30) dye in introducing a petrol batch independent calibration procedure. Talanta 2012, 100, 414. <>
  • REICHARDT C., ASHARIN-FARD S., BLUM A., ESCHNER M., MEHRANPOUR A.-M., MILART P., NIEM T., SCHAEFER G., WILK M.: ChemInform Abstract: Solute/Solvent Interactions and Their Empirical Determination by Means of Solvatochromic Dyes. ChemInform 2010, 25, no. <>
  • Pardo Rosario, Zayat Marcos, Levy David: ET(33) dye as a tool for polarity determinations: Application to porous hybrid silica thin-films. J Photochem Photobiol A Chem 2010, 210, 17. <>
  • Kurjatschij Sandra, Seichter Wilhelm, Weber Edwin: Synthesis and structures of crystalline solvates formed of pyridinium N-phenoxide (Reichardt's-type) betaine dyes and alcohols. New J Chem 2010, 34, 1465. <>
  • Trivedi Shruti, Sarkar Abhra, Pandey Siddharth: Solvatochromic absorbance probe behavior within 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate+propylene carbonate: Preferential solvation or solvent–solvent interaction?. Chem Eng J 2009, 147, 36. <>
  • Lungwitz Ralf, Friedrich Manfred, Linert Wolfgang, Spange Stefan: New aspects on the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) strength of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium room temperature ionic liquids. New J Chem 2008, 32, 1493. <>
  • Singh Pallavi, Pandey Siddharth: Solute?solvent interactions within aqueous poly(ethylene glycol): solvatochromic probes for empirical determination and preferential solvation. Green Chem 2007, 9, 254. <>
  • Ali Maroof, Sarkar Abhra, Tariq Mohammad, Ali Anwar, Pandey Siddharth: Dilute aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate: properties and solvatochromic probe behavior. Green Chem 2007, 9, 1252. <>
  • Sarkar Abhra, Pandey Siddharth: Solvatochromic Absorbance Probe Behavior and Preferential Solvation in Aqueous 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Tetrafluoroborate. J Chemical & Engineering Data 2006, 51, 2051. <>
  • Alunni Sergio, Melis Roberto, Ottavi Laura: OH−-induced β-elimination reactions with 1-(2-Xethyl)-4-nitrobenzene substrates in solvent mixture H2O/CH3CN and H2O/DMSO: Reactivity and mechanism. Res. Chem. Intermed. 2006, 32, 827. <>
  • Reichardt Christian, Eschner Michael, Schäfer Gerhard: Syntheses and UV-visible spectroscopic properties of new ‘fluorophilic’ fluorine- and perfluoroalkyl-substituted solvatochromic pyridiniumN-phenolate betaine dyes. J Phys Org Chem 2001, 14, 737. <>
  • Alı́a Jose M, Edwards Howell G.M: Ion solvation and ion association in lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate solutions in three aprotic solvents. An FT-Raman spectroscopic study. Vib Spect 2000, 24, 185. <>
  • Novaki Luzia P., El Seoud Omar A.: Solvatochromism in Alcohol-Water Mixtures: Effects of the Molecular Structure of the Probe. Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für physikalische Chemie 1997, 101, 105. <>
  • Novaki Luzia P., El Seoud Omar A.: Solvatochromism in binary solvent mixtures: Effects of the molecular structure of the probe. Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für physikalische Chemie 1997, 101, 902. <>
  • Reichardt Christian, Blum Andreas, Harms Klaus, Schäfer Gerhard: PyridiniumN-Phenolate Betaine Dyes and Their Application to the Characterization of the Polarity of Solvents, XXII. Syntheses and UV/Vis Spectroscopic Properties of Solvatochromic, Halochromic, and Chiro-Solvatochromic PyridiniumN-Phenolate Betaine Dyes with Four Stereogenic Centers. Liebigs Ann /Recueil 1997, 1997, 707. <>
  • Milart Piotr, Stadnicka Katarzyna: Synthesis, Solvatochromism, and Molecular Structure of a New Pyridinium N+N− Betaine Dye. Liebigs Ann /Recueil 1997, 1997, 2607. <>
  • Novaki Luzia P., El Seoud Omar A.: Solvatochromism in Pure Solvents: Effects of the Molecular Structure of the Probe. Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für physikalische Chemie 1996, 100, 648. <>
  • Mancini P. M. E., Terenzani A., Gasparri M. G., Vottero L. R.: Solvent effects on aromatic nucleophilic substitutions. Part 6. Kinetics of the reaction of 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene with piperidine in binary solvent mixtures. J Phys Org Chem 1996, 9, 459. <<459::AID-POC806>3.0.CO;2-#>
  • Reichardt Christian, Schäfer Gerhard: PyridiniumN-phenoxide betaines and their application to the characterization of solvent polarities, XXI Determination of new and corrections of oldET(30) values as empirical measures of solvent polarity for 40 organic solvents. Liebigs Ann /Recueil 1995, 1995, 1579. <>
  • Mancini P. M. E., Terenzani A., Gasparri M. G., Vottero L. R.: Determination of the empirical polarity parameterET(30) for binary solvent mixtures. J Phys Org Chem 1995, 8, 617. <>